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General Information

Assam is a northeastern state of India. Located just below the eastern Himalayan foothills, it is surrounded by the other northeastern states: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Meghalaya. Assam and its commercial capital Guwahati form the gateway to the northeastern states, together called the seven sisters.

It has the unique Locational advantage of being situated close to South East Asian countries and hence it has the potential to emerge as a strategic base for domestic and foreign investors to tap the vast potential markets of countries like China, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, etc.

Assam's proximity to SAARC countries like Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan gives it the investment potential considering the advantage of border trade with theses countries. Border Trade Centre at Sutarkandi in Karimganj district and Mankachar in Dhubri district have been developed to facilitate border trade with Bangladesh. It has been proposed in the 11th five-year plan to set up two more Border Trade Center, one at Ledo connecting China and other at Darranga connecting Bhutan. There are several Land Custom Stations (LCS) in the state bordering Bangladesh and Bhutan to facilitate border trade.

Border points between Myanmar and North East region have been opened at Moreh (Manipur) and Champhora (Mizoram). Besides, Assam's internal waterway networks connect it to Bangladesh giving it access to the ports of Chittagong (Bangladesh), Kolkata and Haldia (West Bengal).

Industrial scenario has undergone a vast change in Assam. Apart from tea, petroleum and petrochemicals, other industries in various sectors like paper, fertilizer, cement, coke, lime, sugar, engineering, plastic, steel, printing, cosmetics, poultry & dairy products along with handloom and handicraft have thrived in the state. Moreover, with its rich flora and fauna, breathtaking natural beauty, age-old temples and monuments, Assam offers a unique potential for tourism industries for both domestic and foreign market.

Fact File

Geographical Area 0.78 (lakh sq. km)
Capital Guwahati
Population (2001 Census) In lakhs 266.56
Gross state Domestic product (GSDP) at current prices in 2004-2005 (as of Feb 2006) US$ 9.80427 bn
Gross state Domestic product (GSDP) at constant price (1993-94) in 2004-2005 (as of Feb 2006) US$ 4.78496 bn
Net State Domestic Product at Current Prices (2004-05)* US$ 8.35497 bn
Net State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (1993-1994) for (2004-05) US$ 4.11838 bn
Per Capita Income at current prices (2004-2005) US$ 294. 862
Percentage of State Population to All India Population 2.59
Total Investments (as on Jan 2006) US$ 5.447 bn
Literacy Rate 64.28%
Principal languages Assamese, English


Assam has a tropical climate with three seasons viz. the summer months (June to August), the monsoon months (May to October) and the winter/spring months (November to April). The salient features of the average climate are given below:

  • Maximum Temperature - 37 degree Celsius
  • Minimum Temperature - 6 degree Celsius
  • Humidity (%) - 78
  • Annual Rainfall (mm) - 2310

Political and Administrative System

The political system of the state ensures that elected representatives govern the state. The state has 126 Legislative Assembly constituencies and 14 Parliamentary constituencies.

Advantage Assam

  • The state is endowed with plenty of natural resources.
  • Unique locational advantage of being situated close to South-East Asian countries.
  • Assam's proximity to the SAARC countries of Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan gives rise to investment potential for foreign investors taking advantage of the dynamic possibilities of intra regional trade through SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Agreement).
  • Gateway to the North - East.
  • Source of raw material for both agriculture and industry.
  • Special Government Incentives under the North East Industrial Policy.


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